MATHEMATICS
CURRICULUM
What your child will be learning in kindergarten mathematics
In kindergarten, your child will focus primarily on two important areas. The ﬁrst is learning numbers and what numbers represent. The second is addition and subtraction. Students will also learn to identify and work with shapes. Activities in these areas include:

Counting how many objects are in a group and comparing the quantities of two groups of objects

Comparing two numbers to identify which is greater or less than the other

Understanding addition as putting together and subtraction as taking away from

Adding and subtracting very small numbers quickly and accurately

Breaking up numbers less than or equal to 10 in more than one way (for example, 9=6+3, 9=5+4)

For any number from 1 to 9, finding the missing quantity that is needed to reach 10

Representing addition and subtraction word problems using objects or by drawing pictures

Solving addition and subtraction word problems involving numbers that add up to 10 or less or by subtracting from a number 10 or less
What your child will be learning in grade one mathematics
In grade one, students will work with whole numbers and place value—including grouping numbers into tens and ones as they learn to add and subtract up through 20. Students will also use charts, tables, and diagrams to solve problems. Activities in these areas will include:

Quickly and accurately adding numbers together that total up to 10 or less and subtracting from numbers up through 10

Understanding the rules of addition and subtraction (for example, 5+2=2+5)

Solving word problems that involve adding or subtracting numbers up through 20

Understanding what the different digits mean in twodigit numbers (place value)

Comparing twodigit numbers using the symbols > (more than), = (equal to), and < (less than)

Understanding the meaning of the equal sign (=) and determining if statements involving addition and subtraction are true or false (for example, which of the following statements are true? 3+3=6, 4+1=5+2)

Adding one and twodigit numbers together

Measuring the lengths of objects using a shorter object as a unit of length

Putting objects in order from longest to shortest or shortest to longest

Organizing objects into categories and comparing the number of objects in different categories

Dividing circles and rectangles into halves and quarters
What your child will be learning in grade two mathematics

In grade two, students will extend their understanding of place value to the hundreds place. They will use this place value understanding to solve word problems, including those involving length and other units of measure. Students will continue to work on their addition and subtraction skills, quickly and accurately adding and subtracting numbers up through 20 and also working with numbers up through 100. They will also build a foundation for understanding fractions by working with shapes and geometry. Activities in these areas will include:

Quickly and accurately adding numbers together that total up to 20 or less or subtracting from numbers up through 20

Solving one or twostep word problems by adding or subtracting numbers up through 100

Understanding what the different digits mean in a threedigit number

Adding and subtracting three digit numbers

Measuring lengths of objects in standard units such as inches and centimeters

Solving addition and subtraction word problems involving length

Solving problems involving money

Breaking up a rectangle into samesize squares

Dividing circles and rectangles into halves, thirds, or fourths

Solving addition, subtraction, and comparison word problems using information presented in a bar graph

Writing equations to represent addition of equal numbers
What your child will be learning in grade three mathematics
In grade three, students will continue to build their concept of numbers, developing an understanding of fractions as numbers. They will learn the concepts behind multiplication and division and apply problemsolving skills and strategies for multiplying and dividing numbers up through 100 to solve word problems. Students will also make connections between the concept of the area of a rectangle and multiplication and addition of whole numbers. Activities in these areas will include:

Understanding and explaining what it means to multiply or divide numbers

Multiplying all onedigit numbers from memory (knowing their times table)

Multiplying onedigit numbers by multiples of 10 (such as 20, 30, 40)

Solving twostep word problems using addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division

Understanding the concept of area

Relating the measurement of area to multiplication and division

Understanding fractions as numbers

Understanding and identifying a fraction as a number on a number line

Comparing the size of two fractions

Expressing whole numbers as fractions and identifying fractions that are equal to whole numbers (for example, recognizing that 3⁄1 and 3 arethe same number)

Measuring weights and volumes and solving word problems involving these measurements

Representing and interpreting data
What your child will be learning in grade four mathematics
In grade four, your child will use addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division to solve word problems, including problems involving measurement of volume, mass, and time. Students will continue to build their understanding of fractions—creating equal fractions, comparing the size of fractions, adding and subtracting fractions, and multiplying fractions by whole numbers. They will also start to understand the relationship between fractions and decimals. Activities in these areas will include:

Adding and subtracting whole numbers up to 1 million quickly and accurately

Solving multistep word problems, including problems involving measurement and converting measurements from larger to smaller units

Multiplying and dividing multidigit numbers

Extending understanding of fractions by comparing the size of two fractions with diﬀerent numerators (top numbers) and diﬀerent denominators (bottom numbers)

Creating equal fractions (3⁄4 = 3x2⁄4x2 = 6⁄8)

Adding and subtracting fractions with the same denominator

Building fractions from smaller fractions (3⁄8 = 1⁄8+1⁄8+1⁄8)

Connecting addition and subtraction of whole numbers to multiplying fractions by whole numbers

Connecting addition of fractions to the concept of angle measurement

Representing and interpreting data

Converting fractions with denominators of 10 or 100 into decimals

Locating decimals on a number line

Comparing decimals and fractions using the symbols > (more than), = (equal to), and < (less than)
What your child will be learning in grade five mathematics.
In grade ﬁve, students will build their understanding of the place value system by working with decimals up to the hundredths place. Students will also add, subtract, and multiply fractions, including fractions with unlike denominators. They will continue to expand their geometry and measurement skills, learning the concept of volume and measuring the volume of a solid ﬁgure. Activities in these areas will include:

Quickly and accurately multiplying multidigit whole numbers

Dividing numbers with up to four digits by two digit numbers

Using exponents to express powers of 10 (in 102, 2 is the exponent)

Reading, writing, and comparing decimals to the thousandths place

Adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing decimals to the hundredths place

Writing and interpreting mathematical expressions using symbols such as parentheses. For example, “add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2” can be written as 2× (8+7).

Adding and subtracting fractions with unlike denominators (bottom numbers) by converting them to fractions with matching denominators

Multiplying fractions by whole numbers and other fractions

Dividing fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by fractions

Analyzing and determining relationships between numerical patterns

Measuring volume using multiplication and addition
What your child will be learning in grade six mathematics
In grade six, your child will learn the concept of rates and ratios and use these tools to solve word problems. Students will work on quickly and accurately dividing multidigit whole numbers and adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing multidigit decimals. Students will extend their previous work with fractions and decimals to understand the concept of rational numbers—any number that can be made by dividing one integer by another, such as ½, 0.75, or 2. Students will also learn how to write and solve equations—mathematical statements using symbols, such as 20+x = 35—and apply these skills in solving multistep word problems. Activities in these areas will include:

Understanding and applying the concepts of ratios and unit rates, and using the correct language to describe them (for example, the ratio of wings to beaks in a ﬂock of birds is 2 to 1, because for every 2 wings there is 1 beak)

Building on knowledge of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions

Understanding that positive and negative numbers are located on opposite sides of 0 on a number line

Using pairs of numbers, including negative numbers, as coordinates for locating or placing a point on a graph

Writing and determining the value of expressions with wholenumber exponents (such as 15+32)

Identifying and writing equivalent mathematical expressions by applying the properties of operations. For example, recognizing that 2 (3+x) is the same as 6+2x

Understanding that solving an equation such as 2+x = 12 means answering the question, “What number does x have to be to make this statement true?”

Representing and analyzing the relationships between independent and dependent variables

Solving problems involving area and volume
What your child will be learning in grade seven mathematics
In grade seven, students will further develop their understanding of rates and ratios, using tables, graphs, and equations to solve realworld problems involving proportional relationships. Students will also work on quickly and accurately solving multistep problems involving positive and negative rational numbers—any number that can be made by dividing one integer by another, such as ½, 0.75, or 2. Additionally, students will expand their knowledge of geometry and apply the properties of operations to solve real world problems involving the measurement of multidimensional objects. Activities in these areas will include:

Determining whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship and using knowledge of rates, ratios, proportions, and percentages to solve multistep problems

Identifying the unit rate of change (the constant rate at which the value of a variable changes) in tables, graphs, equations, and verbal descriptions

Calculating the unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including quantities measured in different units (for example, the ratio of ½ a mile for every ¼ of an hour means that you travel 2 miles in an hour)

Solving problems using equations to find the value of one missing variable

Applying the properties of operations to generate equivalent mathematical expressions

Solving multistep word problems by adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing positive and negative rational numbers in any form (including whole numbers, fractions, or decimals)

Understanding that numbers cannot be divided by 0

Converting rational numbers to decimals using long division

Describing situations in which positive and negative quantities combine to make 0

Finding the area of twodimensional objects and the volume and surface area of threedimensional objects